In this post I will show how simple it is to enable 2-Factor authentication using a Raspberry Pi, and your smartphone, but this can also be done for other Linux devices and servers too.
You can contribute issues/fixes to this post on Github: here
With people’s information being leaked left, right and centre, it’s increasingly more critical that we rely on more than just our passwords for access to important devices. If we do not, a leaked password could end up with our servers and devices, such as Raspberry Pi’s being hijacked to participate in a bot-net or some other nefarious deed, or information on those devices being stolen.
First Steps for Raspberry Pi users
Before beginning the setup of 2-Factor auth on your Raspberry Pi, there are some good-practice steps you should carry out first.
If you’re not running a Raspberry Pi, but some other linux machine, such as Ubuntu, Debian, Linux Mint etc, feel free to skip this step.
- Change the password for the
piuser (default is
raspberry), make it really strong, you shouldn’t need to use it after adding your own user (I prefer to delete the user altogether).
- Enter the command
passwdwhile logged in as the
piuser, you’ll be prompted to enter the existing password, then the new one, twice.
- Enter the command
- Create a new user, other than
pi, with your own name, for example, I would use
hamid, with a password that is strong but memorable.
sudo adduser hamid Adding user `hamid' ... Adding new group `hamid' (1001) ... Adding new user `hamid' (1001) with group `hamid' ... Creating home directory `/home/hamid' ... Copying files from `/etc/skel' ... Enter new UNIX password: Retype new UNIX password: passwd: password updated successfully Changing the user information for hamid Enter the new value, or press ENTER for the default Full Name : Hamid Room Number : Work Phone : Home Phone : Other : Is the information correct? [Y/n] y
- Add your user to the
sudogroup so you can perform admin tasks with the
sudo usermod -aG sudo <username>
pi user is a member of lots of other groups, your new user will start as a member of only your own name group.
Be sure to add other groups if you need access to other features, such as the
spi on your Pi for your projects.
groups pi pi : pi adm dialout cdrom sudo audio video plugdev games users input netdev spi i2c gpio
Now, in a new terminal/ssh client you should be able to ssh into your Pi as your new user, this is the user you should access the Pi with from now on.
Setting up your own 2-Factor
This post assumes a debian based Linux distro, and therefore the
aptpackage manager, mainly because the Pi runs Raspbian, based on Debian. If you use another distro on your server, you can still follow this, but installing packages will use a different package manager and possibly package names. You might even use a different editor instead of
You’ll need a smartphone/tablet, and the FreeOTP app by Redhat in order to generate the one time codes you’ll use on login. This is available on Google Play and the App Store.
First start by logging in to your Raspberry Pi, you can do it by SSH, but make sure to keep a spare terminal open while you’re changing the SSH configuration, as it will remain connected even if you break the ssh configuration, or connect a monitor, keyboard and mouse and make changes directly on the Pi.
Be sure to test your connection using a second terminal, leaving the first one for emergencies.
First login to the Pi using your new user (if you’re using a keyboard/mouse directly attached, just login normally).
I’ll use the user
useryou should substitute your own. If
raspberrypidoesn’t work, you’ll need the IP address of your Pi after the @.
If configured correctly you user should have
sudo access (see above; you need to log out and in again after adding your user to a group).
First we need to install the pam-oath plugin, this allows the authentication system to support oath and the qrencode tool to add the one time pass to our smartphone app.
sudo apt-get install -y libpam-oath qrencode
Next, edit the sshd config to enable challenge-response authentication:
sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config
Set the following line from
no to yes
# Change to yes to enable challenge-response passwords (beware issues with # some PAM modules and threads) ChallengeResponseAuthentication yes
Edit the sshd pam config:
Add a new line, near the top of the file, under
auth requisite pam_oath.so usersfile=/etc/users.oath digits=6 window=30
This tells pam that we want to add an auth requirement, that it should use the pam_auth plugin,
the users can be looked up in
/etc/users.oath, that our passes will be 6 digits and valid for 30 seconds.
Now we need to generate our secret and set it in the
/etc/users.oath, you can use
openssl to do this:
openssl rand -hex 20
Next, lets add it to the file:
sudo nano /etc/users.oath
The file should be empty if this is your first user, enter the following, pressing
Tab rather than
space between each block.
HOTP/T30/6 user - <paste your secret from above here>
It should look something like this:
HOTP/T30/6 user - f21cffb7e5459896b298e65d586117186cd3bb15
Make sure the permissions are set correctly on
users.oath for security:
sudo chmod 600 /etc/users.oath
Install the “FreeOTP Authenticator” from RedHat” on your Android or iOS phone, and generate the QR code for it to scan.
First, we need to convert the secret from above, to Base32, which is required by the QR app:
echo <your secret> | xxd -r -p | base32
The output will be a Base32 string, something like this:
Now generate a QR code to scan with your phone:
qrencode -t UTF8 "otpauth://totp/RaspberryPi%20SSH:user%40raspberrypi?secret=<yoursecret>&issuer=user"
Be sure to replace
user in both places with your user, and put your secret Base32 from the last step just after
secret= and before
When you run this,
qrencode will print out a QR in your terminal, press the QR icon in the App on your phone and scan it,
if successful you should see a new item added to your codes list in the app.
If it fails to scan, make sure you didn’t accidently remove any characters above, make sure you used the Base32 secret, and try generate the QR code again.
Finally, we need to restart the ssh server, and test our login;
sudo service ssh restart
Open a new terminal (don’t close the old one, you might need it if anything is wrong)
You’ll be prompted for your password:
Once you type that correctly, you should be prompted for your One-time password:
One-time password (OATH) for `user':
Tap the entry in your mobile App and it’ll display a 6 digit pass valid for 30 seconds or less, enter that and you’ll be logged in!
If you can’t log in, double check all of the previous steps, and if you change any configuration files, be sure to restart ssh
sudo service ssh restart.
That’s it, now you have secured your Pi with 2-Factor authentication, from now on, you’ll need your phone and the FreeOTP app to login.
Final note. It is good practice to clear your shell history since the secrets we’ve used above will be in there.
You can type
history to see what I mean.
Run the following to clear the entire history
This will remove all entries from your shell history on the Pi (or the machine you ran it on, if not the Pi).
Or to remove just a single entry by number:
history -d 24
Better practice would be to not enter secrets on the command line, but use files, or linux pipes to direct them straight to their destination, but that is a more advanced topic for another day.